This paper proposes a new unsupervised fuzzy clustering algorithm (NUFCA) to construct a novel online evolving Takagi–Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model identification method and an adaptive predictive process control methodology. The proposed system identification approach consists of two main steps: antecedent T-S fuzzy model parameters identification and consequent parameters identification. The NUFCA combines the K-nearest neighbour and fuzzy C-means methods into a fuzzy modelling method for partitioning of the input–output data and identifying the antecedent parameters of the fuzzy system; then the recursive least squares method is exploited to obtain initialization type consequent parameters and to construct a method for on-line fuzzy model identification. The integration of the proposed adaptive identification method with the generalized predictive control results in an effective adaptive predictive fuzzy control methodology. For better demonstration of the robustness and efficiency of the proposed methodology, it is applied to the identification of a model for the estimation of the flour concentration in the effluent of a real-world wastewater treatment plant (WWTP); and to control a simulated continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), and a real experimental setup composed of two coupled DC motors. The results show that the developed evolving T-S fuzzy model methodology can identify nonlinear systems satisfactorily and can be successfully used for a prediction model of the process for the generalized predictive controller. It is also shown that the algorithm is robust to changes in the initial parameters, and to unexpected disturbances.